I don't have any hands-on experience with this, but some brief googling (to me) indicated that this is most likely an Android/phone manufacturer thing.
If I understand correctly you are using Bluetooth for the transfer?
I'm not an expert on Bluetooth, so I am only guessing that your phone will need to read the metadata from the audio file(s) and then carry that data over using the Bluetooth protocol to the receiver (your car stereo).
I have no idea if your phone/Android will try to read filenames or any sort of metadata format to do that.
But for as far MusicBee could be any factor in all this, you could try this:
Create a couple of different audio format versions of a music track.
E.g. a Flac version, an MP3 using ID3v1, an MP3 using ID3v2.3, and perhaps one that contains no metadata at all (but it having a proper 'Artist - Title' filename).
Play them to your car stereo and see if your car stereo displays track info for any of them.
If none of them work it's most likely an Android/Bluetooth/'your phone manufacturer' issue.
Out of curiosity I just fooled around a little bit with my phone and my bluetooth earbuds, and I found that when they are connected, you can change some advanced settings for the BT connection.
Perhaps fiddle around a bit with those? e.g. BT using SBC, apt-X, LDAC, or maybe check some other settings?
I have no idea if those would affect metadata, but it may be worth a try.
And maybe the (capabilities of the) music player you are using on your phone also plays a role here?